In general terms it is accurate to say that word order in Old French was well on its way to developing the patterns that are typical of the modern language, but there was more variety and many structures still featured archaic characteristics. In other constructions as well one may find archaisms, as in those including an infinitive preceded by its direct object:. Other sequences are attested as well, but in given contexts.
A typical construction in Old French is what generally is referred to as subject inversion: when the clause is introduced by a complement, the subject follows the finite verb. Similarly, when the clause is introduced by an adverb or an adverbial construction, the subject commonly follows the finite verb:. Whereas Latin had a demonstrative system based on three elements, French from its earliest times had a system based on two demonstratives; cf.
Old French therefore made a distinction between 'this' and 'that'.
To some extent the original demonstrative distinctions are still present in the early uses in Old French: cist 'here' referred to elements within the range in time and space of the speaker and the person spoken to; cil 'that' referred to elements close to a third person. Cist and cil originally were used both as adjectival and pronominal elements; cf.
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In time, a preference developed by which cist came to be used as an adjectival element, and cil as a pronominal element. Some of the individual forms of the paradigms underwent this change rapidly, others survived much longer. Adjectival cels and celes , for example, relatively soon gave way to cez and ces in that function. Demonstratives in Old French have deictic function--pointing out elements that are near or further away--and sometimes defining function.
In these instances they are similar to definite articles; cf. In order to reinforce the deictic value of demonstratives, speakers started to use the adverbial particles -ci and -la. The particle was attached to the demonstrative or its noun.
Instances are attested from the 12th century onward. The demonstrative paradigms in Old French also included "neuter" forms. These forms were not part of the gender system as such, which was based on the distinction masculine vs. The form could be used as subject as well as object, often referring to the preceding clause or sentence; cf.
It became obsolete by the end of the 12th century, surviving in a few fixed epression and phrases only. The most important negating element in Old French is the particle ne , nen. It precedes the finite verb, following the inherited pattern from Latin; cf. The negating element often is reinforced by another element that itself generally has no negating value in origin, cf.
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Whereas ne tends to precede the finite verb, the nominal element follows; cf. On the whole this type of negation is slightly stronger than negated clauses with just the element ne. This emphatic value eroded with time and some of the elements grammaticalized and came to be combined with ne to form the most common negating device in later French; cf.
In addition to definite articles, Romance languages from the earlist times have indefinte articles as well.
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The paradigm of un from Latin unus 'one-Nom. The uses of plural un typically have collective value, referring to pairs or to elements that inherently are collective; cf. The occurrence of indefinite articles is rather limited in Old French, as several examples in the texts analyzed so far have shown:. General Inquiries: Student Inquiries: Bauer and Jonathan Slocum As noted in the Introduction to Lesson 3, Old French literature includes several works that praise the lives or martyrdom of saints. Buona pulcella fut Eulalia , Bel auret corps , bellezour anima.
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Voldrent la veintre li Deo inimi , Voldrent la faire diaule servir. Elle no'nt eskoltet les mals conselliers Qu'elle Deo raneiet chi maent sus en ciel. Ne por or ned argent ne paramenz , Por manatce regiel ne preiement , Niule cose non la pouret omque pleier , La polle sempre non amast lo Deo menestier. E por o fut presentede Maximiien , Chi rex eret a cels dis soure pagiens.
Il li enortet , dont lei nonque chielt , Qued elle fuiet lo nom christiien Ell'ent aduret lo suon element.
Enz enl fou la getterent , com arde tost. Elle colpes non auret , por o nos coist. A czo nos voldret concreidre li rex pagiens ; Ad une spede li roveret tolir lo chief. La domnizelle celle kose non contredist : Volt lo seule lazsier , si ruovet Krist. In figure de colomb volat a ciel. Tuit oram que por nos degnet preier Qued auuisset de nos Christus mercit Post la mort et a lui nos laist venir Par souue clementia.
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Buona pulcella fut Eulalia, Bel auret corps, bellezour anima. Voldrent la veintre li Deo inimi, Voldrent la faire diaule servir. Ne por or ned argent ne paramenz, Por manatce regiel ne preiement, Niule cose non la pouret omque pleier, La polle sempre non amast lo Deo menestier. E por o fut presentede Maximiien, Chi rex eret a cels dis soure pagiens. Il li enortet, dont lei nonque chielt, Qued elle fuiet lo nom christiien Ell'ent aduret lo suon element. Enz enl fou la getterent, com arde tost. Elle colpes non auret, por o nos coist. A czo nos voldret concreidre li rex pagiens; Ad une spede li roveret tolir lo chief.
La domnizelle celle kose non contredist: Volt lo seule lazsier, si ruovet Krist.
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Eulalia was a good girl, She had a beautiful body and an even more beautiful soul. The enemies of God wanted to overcome her, They wanted to make her serve the devil. She does not listen to the mean men who advise That she abjure God, who lives right up in heaven. Not for gold, nor money, nor precious objects, Not because of royal menaces or begging, Not one thing could ever make her yield From continuously loving God's service.
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